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List of data references for chemical elements

The List of data references for chemical elements is divided into datasheets that give values for many properties of the elements, together with various references. Each datasheet is sequenced by atomic number.

Flerovium

Flerovium is a chemical element. It is also named eka-lead. It has the symbol Fl. It has the atomic number 114. It is a superheavy element. Flerovium is radioactive. Flerovium does not exist in nature. It has to be made. It is a synthetic element ...

Gallium

Gallium is chemical element 31 on the periodic table. Gallium is a metal, but it has some unusual properties. Its melting point is 85.58 Fahrenheit. If it is held in a persons hand, it will melt. It makes a stain on your hand when put on your han ...

Hassium

Hassium is a chemical element. It has been named unniloctium and eka-osmium. It has the symbol Hs. It has the atomic number 108. It is a transuranium element. Hassium is a radioactive element that does not exist in nature. It has to be made. Hass ...

Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element. Its atomic number is 53, and its atomic mass is 127. It is part of the Group 7 on the periodic table of elements and its electronic configuration is 2.8.8.18.17. It is a nonmetal.

Manganese

Manganese is chemical element 25 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Mn. Manganese is used a lot in steel to make it stronger. This is the main use for manganese metal. Manganese compounds, particularly manganese oxide, are used in alkaline cell ...

Mercury (element)

Mercury, also known as quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic table is Hg, and its atomic number is 80. Its atomic mass is 200.59. The symbol Hg stands for its Latinized Greek name hydrargyrum, meaning water ...

Moscovium

Moscovium is a chemical element. It is also named eka-bismuth. It has the symbol Mc. It has the atomic number 115. It is a superheavy element. Moscovium does not exist in nature. It is a synthetic element, made from a fusion reaction between amer ...

Neodymium

Neodymium is a chemical element that has the symbol Nd on the periodic table. It has the atomic number 60 which means it has 60 protons in an atom. Neodymium can be combined with other elements like iron and boron to create the very strong neodym ...

Neptunium

Neptunium is a chemical element that has the symbol Np on the periodic table. It has the atomic number 93 which means it has 93 protons and electrons in its atoms. It is named after the planet Neptune in the same way as Uranium is named after the ...

Nickel

Nickel is an element. It has an atomic number of 28 and an atomic mass of about 58.69amu. It has 28 protons. It is a transition metal.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a nonmetal chemical element. The atmosphere contains more than 78 percent of nitrogen. It has the chemical symbol N and atomic number 7. Its stable inside typically contains 14 nucleons. It has 5 electrons in its outer shell.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus has the chemical symbol P, and its atomic number is 15. Its mass number is 30.97. It is not found in nature as an element but as compounds, such as phosphates. It can be a red or a white waxy solid.

Protactinium

Protactinium is a silver metallic element that is in the actinide group, with a bright metallic shine that it keeps for some time in the air. It is superconductive at temperatures below 1.4 K.

Rare earth element

Rare earth elements are a set of seventeen chemical elements. They include the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium rare earth elements since they are often found in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and have ...

Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Re. It has the atomic number 75. It is a rare metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements called the transition metals. The chemistry of rhenium is si ...

Rubidium

Rubidium is chemical element 37 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Rb. Its atomic mass is 85.47. It has 37 protons and 37 electrons. It is a soft silver colored metal. It was first discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff in Heid ...

Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium is a chemical element. It has also been named eka-hafnium and unnilquadium. It has the symbol Rf. It has the atomic number 104. It is a very radioactive element that does not exist in nature. It has to be made. Rutherfordium is the ...

Selenium

-2 compounds Selenides are the most common -2 compounds. Selenides are strong reducing agents. Selenide, the ion. Aluminium selenide. Hydrogen selenide. Sodium selenide. +1 compounds Selenium monochloride. +4 compounds +4 compounds can exist in a ...

Silver

Silver is a chemical element. In chemistry, silver is element 47, a transition metal. It has an atomic weight of 107.86 a.m.u. Its symbol is Ag, from the Latin word for silver, argentum.

Sulfur

SulfurI compounds SulfurI chloride, yellow liquid. SulfurII compounds SulfurII chloride, red odorous liquid. SulfurIII compounds Tetrasulfur tetranitride, orange solid. Disulfur dinitride, colorless solid. SulfurIV compounds Sulfur tetrafluoride, ...

Tennessine

Tennessine is a radioactive superheavy man-made chemical element. It has a symbol Ts and atomic number of 117. It is the second heaviest element of all, and is the second to last element. It is in group 17 in the periodic table, where the halogen ...

Thallium

Thallium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Tl. It has the atomic number 81. Its standard atomic weight is 204.4. It is found in Group 15 of the periodic table. Thallium is a gray metal that is very toxic.

Tin

Tin forms chemical compounds in two oxidation states: +2 and +4. +2 compounds are reducing agents. Some of them are colorless while others are colored. +4 compounds are more unreactive and act more covalent. Tin burns in air to make tinIV oxide, ...

Unbinilium

Unbinilium is a hypothetical element of the periodic table. It is also known as eka- radium. The atomic number of this element is 120. It has the symbol Ubn. The name Unbinilium and the symbol Ubn are temporary IUPAC names. This name and symbol e ...

Unbitrium

Unbitrium, also known as eka-protactinium or element 123, is the possible chemical element in the periodic table that has the temporary symbol Ubt and has the atomic number 123. Calculations have shown that 326 Ubt would be the most stable isotop ...

Unbiunium

Unbiunium is a hypothetical element of the periodic table. It is also known as eka-actinium. The atomic number of this element is 121. It has the symbol Ubu. The name Unbiunium and the symbol Ubu are temporary IUPAC names. This name and symbol ex ...

Unhexoctium

Unhexoctium, also known as eka-flerovium, dvi-lead, or element 168, is the possible chemical element in the periodic table that has the temporary symbol Uho and has the atomic number 168. Due to instabilities, it is not known if this element is p ...

Unsepttrium

Unsepttrium, also known as dvi-francium or element 173, is a possible chemical element which has not been observed to occur naturally, nor has it yet been made. Due to instabilities, it is not known if this element is possible, as the instabiliti ...

Ununennium

Ununennium, or element 119, is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic table is Uue. Ununennium and Uue are substitute names made by the IUPAC, until permanent names are made. Ununennium is the element with the smallest atomic number that ...

Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 92, which means that a uranium atom has 92 protons in its center, which is called a nucleus. Uranium that is dug out of the ground will be made from three different i ...

Zinc

Zinc, sometimes called spelter, is a chemical element. It is a transition metal, a group of metals. It is sometimes considered a post-transition metal. Its symbol on the periodic table is Zn ". Zinc is the 30th element on the periodic table, and ...

Chemical nomenclature

A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules for creating a system of names for chemicals. This is done so that everyone uses the same name for a chemical. The system used most often around the world today is the one created and developed by the Int ...

Substituent

In organic chemistry and biochemistry, substituent is the name for a single atom for a group of atoms that take the position of another atom in a molecule. They replace this atom. This reaction is called a substitution reaction. The atom or group ...

Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a special type of furnace for smelting iron from ore. Blast furnaces are very large. They can be up to 60 metres tall and 15 metres in diameter. The blast furnace is the biggest chemical reactor. Blast furnaces are also called ...

Crystallization

Crystallization is the way that atoms link up in a regular structure. The structure is held together by chemical bonds or connected groups. Crystallization can be from a melt or from a solution, and can be natural or artificial. Rarely, crystal c ...

Electrowinning

Electrowinning is a manufacturing process for making metals from a solution containing dissolved metal. The process involves passing an electrical current from an inert electrode through the solution containing the metal, to plate the metal to an ...

Hall–Heroult process

The Hall–Heroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium. It involves dissolving aluminium oxide in molten cryolite, and electrolysing the molten salt bath, usually in a purpose-built cell. The Hall–Heroult process applied ...

Monsanto process

The Monsanto process is a way of making acetic acid. It uses a catalyst to add a carbonyl group to methanol. This process operates at a pressure of 30–60 atm and a temperature of 150–200 °C. It gives a selectivity greater than 99%. It was develop ...

Freon

Freon is a word for certain chemical compounds, often used as refrigerants. Thomas Midgley, Jr. invented using Freon as a refrigerant. "Freon" is a registered trademark of DuPont. Freon was first used to describe chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, ...

Atmospheric chemistry

Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer mo ...

Green chemistry

Green chemistry is a type of chemical research and engineering. It supports the design of products and processes that use as little dangerous substances as they can. Environmental chemistry is the chemistry of the natural environment and of pollu ...

Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the way carbon is stored and replaced on Earth. Some of the main events take hundreds of millions of years, others happen annually. The main ways that carbon gets into the carbon cycle are volcanoes, and the burning of fossil ...

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This makes it possible to identify different substances within a test sample. GC-MS has many uses include drug detection, fire investig ...

McLafferty rearrangement

The McLafferty rearrangement is an organic reaction seen in mass spectrometry. A mass spectrometer breaks apart the molecule being studied. The molecule breaks apart in consistent ways that chemists can predict. Most of the time, a carbon-carbon ...

Alloy

An alloy is a uniform mixture. It is made up of two or more chemical elements, of which at least one is a metal. An alloy has properties different from the metals it is made of. Most alloys are made by melting the metals, mixing them while they a ...

Heat treating

Heating food to make it last longer is known as pasteurization or sterilization Heat treating or heat treatment is the name for a number of processes in metallurgy: All processes have in common that the piece being worked on is heated for some ti ...

Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special part of chemical synthesis. It builds organic compounds using organic reactions. Organic molecules can have a higher level of complexity compared to inorganic compounds. So, the synthesis of organic compounds has de ...

Woodwards rules

Woodwards rules are a set of rules about how organic chemical compounds absorb ultraviolet light. They give information about the wavelength of the absorption maximum symbol λ max in an ultraviolet-visible UV spectrum of a compound. The rules are ...

Woodward–Hoffmann rules

The Woodward–Hoffmann rules are a set of organic chemistry rules to predict the stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions. Pericyclic reactions are usually rearrangement reactions where the molecule is a ring. They were written by Robert Burns Wood ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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