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Edward the Martyr

King Edward the Martyr or Eadweard II followed his father Edgar as King of England in 975, but was murdered after a reign of only three years. He was declared a holy martyr that means canonised as Saint Edward the Martyr in 1001. That seemed fair ...

Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou

Geoffrey I of Anjou, called Greymantle, was a French nobleman who was the Count of Anjou from 960 to 987. He greatly increased the power and influence of Anjou.

990

Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. January 1 – Kievan Rus adopts the Julian calendar. The Pax Ecclesiae, an edict by the church in southern France attempting to outlaw acts of war against non-combatants and the clergy, is promul ...

992

Viking settlers start a mint in Dublin to make silver pennies. Battle of Conquereuil: Fulk Nerra defeats Conan I of Rennes, who is killed in the battle. Boleslaus I becomes Duke of Poland.

995

Constantine III becomes king of Scotland. Erik Segersall is replaces by Olof Skotkonung, the first baptized ruler of Sweden see Swedish monarchs. Basil II lifts the siege of Aleppo by bringing his entire army across Anatolia in sixteen days. Bole ...

996

October 24 – Hugh Capet, King of France dies and is succeeded by his son Robert II of France. Niujie Mosque constructed in Beijing. Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, fifth Caliph in Egypt dies and is succeeded by his son Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Ma ...

Canute

Canute was a Viking King of England, Denmark, Norway, part of Sweden and governor or overlord of Schleswig and Pomerania. Danish influence in the North Sea region was never greater than in his time. He had treaties with the Holy Roman Emperors, H ...

Richard III, Duke of Normandy

Richard III was the Duke of Normandy. His short reign of one year opened with a rebellion by his younger brother Robert I and ended with his death.

1040

The oldest brewery still active is founded at Weihenstephan. August 15 – King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as Scottish Monarch. Seljuk Turks defeat the Ghaznavids at the Battle o ...

1043

Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral. October 31 – Venus occults Jupiter. The revolt of George Maniaces against Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX ends when Maniaces is killed in battle near Thessalonica. Rus-Byza ...

1044

The Chinese military essay of the Wujing Zongyao is written and built by scholars Zeng Gongliang 曾公亮, Ding Du 丁度, and Yang Weide 楊惟德 during the Song Dynasty. It is the first book in history to include formulas for gunpowder and its use fo ...

Fulk IV, Count of Anjou

Fulk IV, called le Rechin, was a French nobleman who was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until he was deposed in 1096. He rebelled against his older brother Geoffrey III and took the countship of Anjou by force.

Geoffrey III, Count of Anjou

Geoffrey III, born c. 1040, was the oldest son of Geoffrey II, Count of Gatinais and Ermengarde-Blanche of Anjou. Ermengarde-Blanche was the daughter of Fulk III of Anjou. Both he and his younger brother Fulk, called le Rechin, were raised at the ...

1340

A son of deceased King Christopher II of Denmark is elected to the throne following eight years of Interregnum. He will reign as Valdemar IV of Denmark. June 24 – The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England an ...

1341

The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, expels her husband John Henry of Bohemia, to whom she had been married as a child. She subsequently marries Louis of Bavari ...

1342

The Vijayanagara Empire is created in South India. Patriarch of Antioch moved to Damascus while Ignatius II is king. Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia. John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond. May – Pope Clement VI becomes pope. Louis ...

1343

Magnus II of Sweden is no longer king of Norway, and his son Haakon VI of Norway becomes king. However Haakon is still very young, so Magnus makes most of his decisions. January 27, Pope Clement VI creates his Bull Unigenitus. The personal union ...

1344

English king Edward III creates three new gold coins, the florin. leopard, and helm. Unfortunately the amount of gold in the coins is different from their worth of six shillings, three shillings, one shilling, and sixpence. Because of this, they ...

1348

Black Death in Cairo. May – Black Death reaches England. Start of the reign of Emperor Sukō, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders. April 7 – Charles University is founded in Prague. Truce between England and France until 1532. Beginning of B ...

1350

29 August – An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. Hayam Wuruk becomes ruler of the Majapahit Empire. The Black Death ravages Europe. 1347-1351. England invades Fra ...

1352

June 4 – Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. June 27 – Zug joins the Swiss Confederation. Lionel of Antwerp marries Elizabeth, daughter of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster. The town of Biel / Bienne, Switzerland finalizes its alliance with ...

1353

John Purvey, English scholar and Bible translator died 1428. Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury died 1413. Margaret I of Denmark, queen of Haakon VI of Norway died 1412. July 15 – Vladimir the Bold, Russian prince d. 1410.

1355

January 7 – Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro – Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. April 5 – Charles IV crowned emperor in Rome. September 1 – Tvrtko I writes in castro nostro Vi ...

1356

The majority of the Great Pyramid of Gizas limestone casing stones are removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan to build fortresses and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ...

1451

February 3 – Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. Foundation of the University of Glasgow. April 11 – Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. Lodi ...

1452

18 June – Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, legitimising the colonial slave trade. Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers Corvo Island in the Azores. Battle of Bealach nam Broig, a Scottish clan battle. March – Frederick III, H ...

1450s

France wins the Hundred Years War against England. War of the Roses starts. The Gutenberg Bible is the first book printed with movable type. The first printing press is made in Europe by Johann Gutenberg. Fall of Constantinople now called Istanbu ...

1455

February 9 – Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector. May 25 – Victorious Yorkish lords ritually renew the monarchy of Henry VI in St. Pauls Cathedral. May 22 – Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans – Richard, Duke ...

Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch, was an early Dutch painter. He lived, worked and died in s-Hertogenbosch, a Dutch town. This was then the capital of the Duchy of Brabant, a region which included much of modern Belgium and Holland. Many of his works depict temp ...

Mariano Taccola

Mariano di Jacopo detto il Taccola, called Taccola, was an Italian artist, engineer and administrator. He lived during the early Renaissance period. He wrote two important books, De ingeneis and De machinis. These hand-drawn books have drawings o ...

1601

A bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer. February 8 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Queen Elizabeth I of England – his revolt is quickly crushed. Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China. Dutch troops chase Portuguese from Ma ...

1602

June – James Lancasters East India Company fleet arrives at Achin now Aceh, Sumatra to deal with the local ruler. Having defeated Portugals ally, the ruler is happy to do business, and Lancaster seizes a large Portuguese Galleon and loots it. Mar ...

1604

The first known English Dictionary to be organized by alphabetical ordering was published. September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three-year siege. Luis Vaez de Torres is the first European to sail throu ...

1606

Richard Busby, English clergyman died 1695. Tokugawa Tadanaga, Japanese nobleman died 1633. Edmund Castell, English orientalist died 1685. May 25 – Saint Charles Garnier, Jesuit missionary died 1649. May 23 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish wr ...

1607

Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French courtier died 1693. January 10 – Isaac Jogues, Jesuit missionary to Native Americans died 1646. Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln died 1691. November 15 – Madeleine de Scudery, French writer died 1701. ...

Juan de Pareja

Juan de Pareja was a Spanish painter. He was born near Malaga in 1606 or 1610 and died 1670 in Madrid. De Pareja was a slave. He is known mostly as a member of the household and workshop of painter Diego Velazquez. Velazquez freed him in 1650. Hi ...

1610

October 17 – Louis XIII of France crowned. May 13-14 – Francois Ravaillac assassinates Henry IV of France. May 27 – Ravaillac is executed by pulling him apart in the Place de Greve. January 7 – Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupi ...

1611

November 1 – At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. June 23 – Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat. George Abbot becomes archbishop of Canterbury. ...

1613

Year 1613 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar.

1614

The French Estates-General meets for the last time before the era of the French Revolution. In between, France will be governed as an absolute monarchy. October 11 – Adriaen Block and a group of Amsterdam merchants petition the States General for ...

1617

Year 1617 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar.

1618

August 29 – Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius are imprisoned by Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. March 8 – Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made ...

Mateo Aleman

Mateo Aleman y de Enero was a Spanish writer. He graduated at Seville University in 1564 and later studied at Salamanca and Alcala. From 1571 to 1588 held a post in the treasury. He was descended from Jews who were made to converted to Catholicis ...

1621

March 16 – Samoset, a Wampanoag, visits the settlers of Plymouth Colony and greets them, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset.". February 9 – Gregory XV is elected pope. Willebrord Snell discovers the laws of refraction. April 5 – The Mayflow ...

1622

Portugal loses control of the island of Ormus, after 107 years. February 8 – King James I of England disbands the English Parliament. March 22 – In the Jamestown massacre, Algonquian Native Americans kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Vi ...

1623

November 9 – William Camden, English historian b. 1551. June 16 – Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Wolfenbuttel, German Protestant military leader b. 1599. November 11 – Philippe de Mornay, French writer b. 1549. Andrea Andreani, Italian eng ...

1624

Claudio Monteverdi publishes Tancredi e Clorinda. University founded in Bolivia. Jean Louis Guez de Balzac publishes his Lettres. Jakob Bartsch records the constellation Camelopardalis. Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel first recorded in America. ...

1625

October 22 – Kikkawa Hiroie, Japanese politician b. 1561. June 5 – Orlando Gibbons, English composer and organist b. 1583. March 7 – Johann Bayer, German astronomer b. 1572. August – John Fletcher, English writer b. 1579. April 27 – Mori Terumoto ...

1626

In New England, the Town later City of Salem, Massachusetts is founded at Naumkeag. The Duchy of Urbino is incorporated into the Papal States. September 30 – Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded ...

1628

Island of Santorini explodes. October 28–Siege of La Rochelle ends with the surrender of the Huguenots. August 10 – The Swedish 64 gun sailing ship Vasa sinks on her maiden voyage in the Stockholm harbor. The Collegiate School, today the oldest e ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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