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Mesosaurus

Mesosaurus is an extinct marine reptile from the early Permian of southern Africa and South America. It was one of the first known marine reptiles, and had many adaptations to a fully aquatic lifestyle. It is sometimes considered an anapsid, but ...

Microraptor

Microraptor was a small feathered dinosaur related to Velociraptor and Deinonychus. It had flight feathers, and could glide and probably fly. About two dozen well-preserved fossil specimens have been found in Liaoning, China. They are from the Lo ...

Mosasaur

Mosasaurs were large, predatory marine lizards of the Upper Cretaceous. The first fossil Mosasaur, Mosasaurus hoffmanni, was found in the Netherlands in 1776. p7 It was named in 1822 by W.D. Conybeare.

Multituberculate

The multituberculates were a group of rodent-like mammals which survived for about 166 million years – the longest fossil history of any mammal line. They were eventually outcompeted by rodents, becoming extinct during the late Eocene. At least 2 ...

Nimravides

Nimravides was a prehistoric saber-toothed cat which lived in North America during the middle and late Miocene. Despite its scientific name Nimravides does not belong to the Nimravidae, but belongs to the family Felidae. The earlier species of th ...

Oviraptor

Oviraptor is a genus of dinosaurs from what is today Mongolia. Oviraptor was a relatively large-brained dinosaur which cared for its eggs. In 1924, an Oviraptor fossil was found on top of some eggs, and some thought that it had been eating the eg ...

Paraceratherium

Paraceratherium is an extinct genus of mammal, a large hornless rhinoceros. It lived in Eurasia during the late Oligocene epoch of the Tertiary period. Paraceratherium was one of the largest land mammals. Its exact size is unclear because of the ...

Paraves

Paraves is a branch-based clade containing birds and other closely related dinosaurs. The paravians include the Avialae, such as Archaeopteryx, and the Deinonychosauria, which includes the dromaeosaurids and troodontids. The name Paraves was coin ...

Pederpes

Pederpes is an extinct genus of early Carboniferous tetrapod, dating from the lower Mississippian, 359–345 million years ago. Pederpes contains one species, P. finneyae, 1 m long. A single fossil was found in East Kirton quarry, West Lothian, Sco ...

Pelagornis

Pelagornis is a genus of huge fossil birds. One species, P. sandersi, is one of the largest bird ever found. Its wingspan was twice that of the largest Albatross. Its wingspan is estimated as about 6.4 to 7.4 metres. The fossil of this particular ...

Pelycosaur

Pelycosaurs were the earliest synapsids. They were not dinosaurs or reptiles. They are an informal group, meaning all synapsids except the therapsids and their descendants. These tetrapods appeared during the Pennsylvanian and went extinct at the ...

Phorusrhacos

Phorusrhacos was a genus of giant predatory flightless birds which lived in Patagonia. The terror birds lived in woodlands and grasslands. Remains are known from several localities in the Santa Cruz Province, of Argentina. Phorusrhacos stood arou ...

Phytosaur

Phytosaurs are an extinct group of large semi-aquatic Upper Triassic archosaurs. Phytosaurs were long-snouted and heavily armoured, bearing a remarkable resemblance to modern crocodiles in size, appearance, and lifestyle. This is an example of co ...

Placoderm

The Placoderms were a class of armoured prehistoric fish, which lived from the mid Silurian to the end of the Devonian period. Their head and thorax were covered by armoured plates, the rest of the body was scaled or naked, depending on the speci ...

Pneumodesmus

Pneumodesmus newmani is a species of millipede that lived in the Paleozoic era. Its exact age is uncertain. 428 million years ago in the late Silurian was first suggested. A later study suggested the early Devonian. It is the first myriapod fossi ...

Presbyornis

Presbyornis is an extinct genus of water bird. It was a wading bird, often walking in shallow water on its long legs. Presbyornis was one of the first anseriforms. Because of its long legs and neck, it was initially mistaken for a flamingo. Later ...

Prionosuchus

The fragmentary remains of this animal were found in the Parnaiba Basin of northeast Brazil. With an estimated length of 9 m 30 ft, Prionosuchus is the largest amphibian ever found. It had an elongated and tapered snout, numerous sharp teeth, lon ...

Saber–toothed cat

The saber–toothed cats or sabretooth cats are some of the best known and most popular extinct animals. They are among the most impressive carnivores that ever have lived. These cats had long canines and jaws which opened wider than modern cats. T ...

Seymouria

Seymouria was an amphibian tetrapod from the early Permian of North America and Europe, about 280 to 270 million years ago. It was small, only 2 ft long. As an adult animal, Seymouria was well adapted to life on land, with many reptilian features ...

Small shelly fossils

Small shelly fossils, or small shelly fauna, are tiny fossils, many only a few millimetres long. They have a record from the latest stages of the Ediacaran to the early Cambrian period. Almost all are from earlier rocks than more familiar fossils ...

Smilodon

Smilodon was a genus of saber-toothed cat. There were three species. Smilodon gracilis was the ancestral, smaller, species. Smilodon populator 1 mya to 10 kya was a large, heavy species from eastern South America. It was 1.2 m high at the shoulde ...

Stromatolite

Stromatolites are special rock-like structures. They usually form in shallow water. They are formed by bacteria such as cyanobacteria. There may also be other types of bacteria and single-celled algae. The mucus secreted by the bacteria collects ...

Stupendemys

Stupendemys is a prehistoric genus of freshwater turtle. Its fossils have been found in northern South America, in rocks dating from the late Miocene to the very start of the Pliocene, about 6 to 5 million years ago. Stupendemys s carapace measur ...

Sue (dinosaur)

"Sue" is the nickname given to FMNH PR 2081, one of the largest, most complete and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex fossil ever found. Sue was discovered in the summer of 1990 by Sue Hendrickson, a paleontologist, and was named after her. She con ...

Teratorn

Teratorns were a group of very large birds of prey that lived in the Americas from the Miocene to Pleistocene epochs. They are all extinct now. They include some of the largest known flying birds. So far, at least five species in four genera have ...

Terror birds

Terror birds, the family Phorusrhacidae, were large carnivorous flightless birds. They were the dominant predators in South America during the Cainozoic, from 62–2 million years ago. They were roughly 1–3 meters tall. Titanis walleri, one of the ...

Tiktaalik

Tiktaalik is a genus of extinct fish. This sarcopterygian fish from the later Devonian has many features similar to those of tetrapods. Tiktaalik lived about 375 million years ago. It is part of the transition between fish such as Panderichthys, ...

Titanoboa

Titanoboa cerrejonensis is the largest known snake. Now extinct, the snake was a relative of the anaconda and the boa constrictor. It was about 43 feet long, and weighed over a ton. The snake lived in the Palaeocene epoch, about 58 million years ...

Trace fossil

Trace fossils are geological records of biological activity. They are fossils, but not of the living things themselves. Probably the best-known examples are dinosaur trackways. Trace fossils may be impressions made on the substrate by an organism ...

Whatcheeria

Whatcheeria is an extinct genus of early tetrapod from the early Mississippian of Iowa. Fossils have been found in an old limestone quarry in the town of Delta. They date to 340 million year ago. The type species W. deltae was named in 1995. It i ...

Acanthocephala

The Acanthocephala are a group of parasitic worms. They may be called known as acanthocephales, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms. They have an evertable proboscis, armed with spines, which they use to pierce and hold the gut wall of the ...

Acarina

The Acarina, or Acari, are the mites and ticks. They are an order of Arachnids. Their fossil history goes back to the Devonian era. Most acarines are tiny: less than a millimetre. It is estimated that over 50.000 species have been described, but ...

Anopheles

Anopheles is a genus of mosquito. There about 460 species, and over 100 can transmit human malaria. Only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which causes human malaria in endemic areas. Anopheles gambiae is one of the best ...

Chigger

A chigger is a small, parasitic mite which lives in tall grass. It is a member of a larger family known as the Trombiculidae. The species of Trombiculidae which bite in their larval stage cause "intense irritation", or "a wheal, usually with seve ...

Laelaps (mite)

Laelaps is a common parasitic mites in the family Laelapidae. Species, with their hosts, include: Laelaps muris – Microtus, Ondatra. Laelaps echidnina – Rattus, Didelphis, Sigmodon, Mus, Peromyscus, Sylvilagus. Laelaps castroi – Oligoryzomys. Lae ...

Mosquito

A mosquito is a type of fly. It is the common name of a family of flies in the order Diptera. The females are ectoparasites: they land on warm-blooded animals, pierce a capillary, and inject saliva to stop the blood coagulating. Then they suck up ...

Orthonectida

When they are ready to reproduce, the adults are released from the host, and sperm from the males penetrates the bodies of the females to achieve fertilisation. The resulting zygote develops into a ciliated larva that escapes from the mother to s ...

Bleeding

Bleeding, technically known as haemorrhaging or hemorrhaging is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a na ...

Blood plasma

Blood plasma is the yellow liquid part of blood. In normal blood, the blood cells are suspended in the plasma. Plasma makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is mostly water 90% by volume and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, clottin ...

Coagulation

A coagulation, also known as clot is a semi-solid substance that blood forms, especially when it is in air. When a person bleeds, the blood turns into a clot at the injury. A blood clot is also called a thrombus. The process is called coagulation ...

Heparin

Heparin is an anticoagulant discovered by Jay McLean and William Henry Howell. It is generally injected under the skin or into veins. As of now it seems safe to use on pregnant people. It is identified as a glycosaminoglycan chains consisting of ...

Serum (blood)

Serum is a clear, yellowish coloured fluid which is part of the blood. It does not contain white or red blood cells or a clotting factor. It is the blood plasma without the fibrinogens. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting and a ...

Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system is made of specialized cells and processes which kill pathogens or prevent their attack. The adaptive immune system is switched on by the evolutionarily older innate immune system. This older system is non-specific, whe ...

Immune system

The immune system is the set of tissues which work together to resist infections. The immune mechanisms help an organism identify a pathogen, and neutralize its threat. The immune system can detect and identify many different kinds of disease age ...

Immunology

Immunology is the study of the immune system. The immune system is the parts of the body which work against infection and parasitism by other living things. Immunology deals with the working of the immune system in health and diseases, and with m ...

Innate immune system

The innate immune system defends the host from infections. It includes cells which recognize and respond to pathogens right away. The innate immune system response is not specific: it responds the same way to all pathogens that it recognises. Unl ...

Autoimmunity

Autoimunity is immune reaction against self components, which are recognized as antigens. This reaction can produce severe inflammation or can be innocuous, as when directed to intracellular autoantigens, which are not expressed to circulating an ...

B cell

B cells are lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Once the B cell is activated, it turns into a plasma cell, and starts producing antibodies. They are a vital part of the adaptive immune system. They have a protein on the B cells outer surface ...

Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells are white blood cells forming part of the mammalian immune system. They process antigen material from pathogens and put it on their surface. There it touches other cells of the immune system. So, dendritic cells are antigen-presen ...

Granulocyte

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells which have granules in their cytoplasm. They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of the shape of the nucleus, which has three segments. The term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often r ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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