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Undulator

An undulator is an insertion device from high-energy physics and usually part of a larger installation, a synchrotron storage ring. It consists of a periodic structure of dipole magnets. A static magnetic field is alternating along the length of ...

Ethanol

Ethanol, also known as marks formula, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol or just alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound. Its chemical formula is C 2 H 5 OH, also written as C 2 H 6 O. It is the active part of alcoholic drinks, which are d ...

Fuel

A fuel is a substance that is changed in some way to produce heat, electricity, or other forms of energy. This is usually by being burnt, although there are exceptions, such as nuclear fuel. Fuel can be divided into two main types: fossil fuels a ...

Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline.

Producer gas

Producer gas is a fuel produced by producing it through red-hot coke, a product of coal through the process of heating it strongly in the absence of air.

Ocean thermal energy conversion

Ocean thermal energy conversion is a way of getting useful energy from the worlds oceans. The sun shines on the oceans of the world and in the hot parts near the water at the seas surface can be quite warm, sometimes as high as 30°C. Many oceans ...

Snowy Mountains Scheme

The Snowy Mountains scheme is a hydroelectricity and irrigation system in south-east Australia. It has sixteen major dams, seven power stations, a pumping station, and 225 kilometres of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts. It was built between 1949 ...

Tidal stream power

Tidal stream power is electricity made from the tidal movement of water. A tidal stream generator is a machine that extracts energy from moving water in tides. Tidal stream generators draw energy from water currents in much the same way as wind t ...

Xiluodu Dam

The Xiluodu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze River in China. It is near the town of Xiluohu in Yunnan Province. One of the largest of its kind in the world, construction began in 2005 and the dam was put into use in 2013.

Nuclear energy

Nuclear energy is the energy that holds together the nucleus of atoms. Atoms are the most simple blocks that make up matter. Every atom has in its center a very small nucleus. Normally, nuclear energy is hidden inside the atoms. However, some ato ...

Anti-nuclear movement

Many people who are anti-nuclear, are against the use of nuclear power for electricity generation, since they think nuclear power is dangerous. They consider the risk of a nuclear accident unacceptable and generally believe that radioactive waste ...

Containment building

Containment building is a building with a nuclear reactor in it. It is built around the reactor to keep the radiation from getting out, if something happens to the reactor. The containment building is the last barrier to the radiation getting int ...

German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Association

The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Association - an association of German insurers of the nuclear industry in Cologne. The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Association also is involved in the reinsurance industry.

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is a kind of nuclear reaction. It is when an atom splits apart into smaller atoms. Some fission reactions give off a lot of energy, and are used in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors. Nuclear fission was discovered in December 1 ...

Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to take over nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile elements wh ...

Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the controlled use of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is energy in fissionable elements like uranium that can be released by nuclear reactions in a machine called a nuclear reactor. This energy is made into electricity, which then ...

Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant is a type of power station that generates electricity using heat from nuclear reactions. These reactions take place within a reactor. The plant also has machines which remove heat from the reactor to operate a steam turbine ...

Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor is a machine that uses fission to generate heat. There are different designs which use different fuels. Most often, uranium-235 or plutonium-239 are the main components of these fuels. Most nuclear reactors are used to make elec ...

World Nuclear Association

The World Nuclear Association is an organisation that tries to educate people about nuclear energy, and helps companies that are in the nuclear industry.

World Nuclear Industry Status Report

The World Nuclear Industry Status Report is a yearly report about the global challenges facing the nuclear power industry. The reports show that the share of nuclear-generated electricity in the overall global energy production has decreased in t ...

Didcot power stations

Didcot Power Station refers to a combined coal and oil power plant and a natural-gas power plant that supply the National Grid. They are right next to one another in the civil parish of Sutton Courtenay, next to the town of Didcot in Oxfordshire, ...

Gas-fired power plant

A Gas-fired power plant is a power plant which uses natural gas to generate electricity. About a quarter of the worlds electricity need is generated using gas-fired power plants. As the gas is burnt to generate the electricity, this also contribu ...

Renewable energy commercialization in the United States

The current status of renewable energy commercialization in the United States varies considerably between different renewable energy technologies, with some being commercialized at the present time. Wind power is a growing industry in the United ...

Wind power in the United States

Wind power in the United States is a growing industry. As of 2011, the total installed capacity of was 42.432 megawatts, making it second in the world, behind China. In 2010 wind power accounted for 2.3% of the electricity generated in the United ...

Subatomic particle

A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom. This means it is very small. Like atoms and molecules, a subatomic particle is far too small to be seen with the naked eye. It is also very interesting to scientists who try to understand a ...

Particle physics

Particle physics is a category of physics that studies really tiny pieces of things, known as particles. These particles are the really small pieces that build up the world around us. They are best described in the language of math: calculus, the ...

Antiparticle

There is an antiparticle corresponding to most kinds of particle. It has the same mass and opposite electric charge. Even electrically neutral particles, such as the neutron, are not identical to their antiparticle. In the example of the neutron, ...

Pion

A pion or π meson is a meson, which is a subatomic particle made of one quark and one antiquark. There are six types of quark called flavours but only two flavours go together to make a pion. These flavours are called up and down. Quarks have cha ...

Tachyon

A tachyon is any hypothetical particle that can travel faster than the speed of light. E. C. G. Sudarshan, V.K Deshpande and Baidyanath Misra were the first to propose the existence of particles faster than light and named them "meta-particles". ...

CNDO/2

CNDO is the short cut for Complete Neglect of Differential Overlap. It is both 1) a method for learning key facts about molecular orbitals as well as 2) the name of a particular set of computer programs. CNDO is based on quantum chemistry. It is ...

Light

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength which can be detected by the human eye. It is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum and radiation given off by stars like the sun. Animals can also see light. The study of ligh ...

Dobereiners lamp

Dobereiners lamp is one of the first lighters. It was developed in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner. The lighter was produced until around 1880. The Heidelberg Castle and also the Deutsches Museum still have original Doberein ...

Holography

Holography is a way of making three-dimensional picture made with a laser. It allows the holographer to make a more exact image than with photography. The holograph seems to move and change slightly to look as if it were three-dimensional. Hologr ...

Lighter

A lighter is a tool that can produce a flame, on demand. It is made of a plastic or metal container, which contains a flammable liquid or gas. There is also a means of producing the flame, and extinguishing it, when it is no longer needed. One of ...

Photomultiplier tubes

A photomultiplier tube is a transducer which converts photons into electrons, which generate a current and voltage. Photomultiplier tubes are used to detect low levels of incident light, even as low as a single photon. An incoming photon will str ...

Spectrum

This article is about the visible spectrum. For all other uses see: Spectrum A spectrum, plural: spectra, is a band of several colours: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. A spectrum can be seen if the Suns light is passed throug ...

Demolition

Demolition is a process in which buildings are torn down. Demolition is different from deconstruction, which is carefully taking a building apart to reuse its parts. For small buildings, such as houses, demolition is often simple. Buildings are o ...

Material

Material is what everything that you can touch is made of. Even material that is too small to touch, is called material. We use materials to make things. We can also call material "physical substances." Raw material is materials such as ores whic ...

Composite material

Composite materials are made from two or more basic material mixed together. The materials can be natural or not, and keep their separate properties when mixed together. However, the composite material as a whole may behave differently from eithe ...

Artificial leather

Artificial leather is a substance used as a replacement for real leather. It is used where the properties or the look of real leather are desired, but real leather is too expensive, unsuitable, or not feasible for ethical reasons. Compared with r ...

Biochar

Biochar is a type of charcoal added to soil that acts as plant food, or fertilizer. Biochar is made by heating biomass like wood in an oven to very high temperatures. This removes all of the water and easy to burn material from the biomass leavin ...

Bubble wrap

Bubble wrap is a kind of packaging, used for protecting sensitive things that can be broken during transportation. It is made of two very thin pieces of plastic glued together, with many small round air bubbles left inside. When these bubbles are ...

Cement

Cement is a material that hardens and sticks to other materials to hold them together. Portland cement is a common kind, and made from quicklime and clay. Cement is used to make concrete and mortar.

Concrete

Concrete is an important material for making different buildings and structures. It is a composite made of Portland cement, sand, gravel or aggregate, and water in varying proportions depending on the task. Concrete is used more than any other ma ...

Lint (material)

Navel lint, also called belly button lint, belly button fluff or navel fluff, is an collection of fluffy fibres in ones navel. Many people find that, at the beginning and end of the day, a small lump of fluff has appeared in the navel cavity. Peo ...

Lubricant

A lubricant is a substance used to reduce friction between moving surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity. A good lubricant possesses the following characteristics: Does not burn easily, and may also prevent rusting. Hig ...

Plaster

Plaster is a material similar to mortar and cement. Plaster of Paris is one kind, made from gypsum by heating it. It is used to make copies of footprints, fossils, skeletons, and to set fractured bones. Other kinds of plaster are used for buildin ...

Plasticine

Plasticine is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and fatty acids. It does not dry, and comes in many different colours. Plasticine is used for childrens play and for modelling more formal or permanent structu ...

Putty

Putty is a squeezy dough-like material used for filling small spaces. It is often used for woodwork repair. Painters use it to fill holes and cracks in wood. Fireproof putties can be used round electrical boxes in drywall setups. Plumbers putty i ...

Sandwich panel

A sandwich panel is a kind of composite material, which is usually made of two components: A small outside layer, and an inside layer, which is used to get certain properties, for example insulation or fire resistance. Aluminium is often used for ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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