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Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician. He commanded the left wing of Sullas army at the Battle of the Colline Gate. It was he who finally suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus. The Third Servile War began with three de ...

Tiberius Gracchus

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was an important Roman Tribune of the plebs. He proposed a reform called the "Lex Sempronia Agraria". This was meant to reduce the number of poor and homeless people by allowing the rich to have only a certain amount ...

Ambrosius Aurelianus

Ambrosius Aurelianus was a powerful Romano-British leader in Sub-Roman Britain around mid-5th century. He has been identified with the legendary King Arthur by historians like John Morris.

Athelfrith of Bernicia

Athelfrith, in 593 became King of Bernicia. In 604 he conquered Deira and became the first King of Northumbria. Aethelfrith was the first great leader among the Angles north of the River Humber. Bede called him an ambitious and powerful king who ...

Cynegils of Wessex

Cynegils was the King of the Gewisse, although more commonly called the King of Wessex. He ruled from 611 to 643. Cynegils was a pagan king but under his rule Wessex started its conversion to Christianity. Cynegils himself was baptized in 635.

Songtsen Gampo

Songtsen Gampo or Songzan Ganbu, was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire. He helped introduce Buddhism to Tibet. He had a Nepali wife named Bhrikuti and a Tang wife named Princess Wencheng. Both of them were Buddhists. He also ...

Pope Leo III

Leo reported his election to Charlemagne, sent him the keys of Saint Peters tomb and the banner of Rome. Charlemagne replied that it was his function to defend the church and the Popes to pray for the kingdom and for victory of the army. Charlema ...

Constantine I of Scotland

Constantine I was a son of Kenneth MacAlpin and was king of Picts "Rex Pictorium" from either 862 / 863 to 877 when he died in Fife, during a battle against Norse invaders. He was the nephew of his predecessor Donald I and the son of Kenneth MacA ...

Constantine II of Scotland

Constantine II was the first king of Alba, he ruled from the year 900 until his abdication in 943. He was the son of Aed, king of Scots who ruled from 877-878. He was succeeded by his 1st cousin once removed Malcolm in 943 when he abdicated. He d ...

Giric of Scotland

Giric "Gregorius the Great" was king of the Picts from 878-889. He died around c. 890, showing he may of been deposed or personally abdicated. He ruled with Eochaid, a disputed king of the Picts who claimed the throne during the whole of Girics r ...


Ingelger was the son of a Frankish nobleman Tertullus and his wife Petronilla. She was the niece of Raino, Bishop of Angers. Petronilla was also a relative of Hugh the Abbot, an counselor to both Louis II and Louis III of France. His mothers infl ...

Malcolm I of Scotland

Malcolm I, born 896-900 was king of Scotland from 943-954 and was the successor to his 1st cousin once removed king Constantine II and was the monarch who celebrated the 100th anniversary of Scottish monarchs.

Pope Anastasius III

Pope Anastasius III was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 121st Pope from 911 until his death in 913.

Pope Benedict VIII

Pope Benedict VIII, born Teofillato or Theophylactus, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 144th Pope from 1012 to 1024.

Indulf of Scotland

Indulf was king of Scots from 954-962 and succeeded his cousin Malcolm I to the throne of Alba in 954. He died in 962, 8 years after he became king and passed the throne to his son Dub.

Richard II, Duke of Normandy

Richard II, called the Good, was the Duke of Normandy from 996 to 1026. He was the first to assume the title of duke and built up his court to resemble that of a king. He commissioned Dudo of Saint-Quentin to write a detailed history of the Norma ...

Aescwine of Wessex

Aescwine was the son of Cenfus, who also ruled Wessex as a subking. They both claimed descent from Cynric through his son Ceolwulf. After the death of Cenwalh the underkings took over Wessex and ruled it for about ten years. According to the Angl ...

Aethelbald of Mercia

Aethelbald was a Mercian nobleman who became the King of Mercia. He brought Mercia back to a position of power not seen since the days of Penda and Wulfhere. Because of his authority and his use of the title "king of the gens Anglorum his people ...

Aethelred I of Mercia

Aethelred, also Æthelred or Ethelred, was an early King of Mercia. He succeeded his brother Wulfhere when he died in 675. Like his brother, Wulfhere, he was considered an overlord over other English kings. But he never reached the same political ...

Pope Anastasius II

Pope Anastasius II was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 50th Pope from 496 until his death in 498.

Athelbert of Wessex

Athelbert, also spelled Æthelbert, was a West Saxon nobleman. He was the sub-king of Kent from 858–860. He was the King of Wessex from 860-865.

Athelheard of Wessex

Athelheard, also spelled Æthelheard, was a West Saxon nobleman and atheling. He was the King of Wessex from 726 until his death. He took the powerful kingdom of Wessex left to him by Ine and lost much of it to Mercia.

Athelwald of Deira

Athelwald was a King of Deira. He was the nephew of King Oswiu of Northumbria, his overlord, but he turned on his family to support the pagan Penda of Mercia. When Penda was killed, Athelwald lost his kingdom.

Pope Benedict V

Pope Benedict V, was an Italian deacon of the Roman Catholic Church and the 133rd Pope for a five weeks in 964. Benedict was known as Grammaticus because of his learning.

Beorhtric of Wessex

Beorhtric was the King of Wessex from 786 to 802. He ruled Wessex as a figurehead king. His wife and father-in-law exercised most of the power.

Beornwulf of Mercia

Beornwulf was a Mercian nobleman who became the King of Mercia. Although not of the Mercian royal family himself he usurped the throne from Ceolwulf in 823. He ruled Mercia until his death three years later.

Ceawlin of Wessex

Ceawlin was the King of the Gewisse, also called the King of Wessex. He ruled from 560 to 592. He was the second king to be overlord over all the English south of the River Humber.

Centwine of Wessex

Centwine was King of Wessex from c. 676 to 685. He appears to have been one of several underkings of Wessex after the death of Cenwalh. But at some point he united the kingdom of Wessex under his rule.

Cenwalh of Wessex

Cenwalh, also spelled Coenwalh, was a King of Wessex. He reigned from 643 until he was exiled by King Penda of Mercia in 645. Restored to his kingdom in 648 he reigned until his death. He was a pagan king until his exile in East Anglia when, like ...

Ceol of Wessex

Ceol was the King of the Gewisse, also called the King of Wessex. He ruled from 591 to 597. He was first an underking until 592 when he replaced his uncle Ceawlin of Wessex as king.

Ceolwulf I of Mercia

Ceolwulf I was the King of Mercia, East Anglia and Kent from 821 to 823. He succeeded his brother Coenwulf of Mercia. There was a great deal of disagreement among his noblemen during his short reign. He was deposed and exiled from Mercia by Beorn ...

Ceolwulf of Wessex

Ceolwulf was the grandson of Cynric. He succeeded his brother Ceol. The first mention of him as king in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was in 597. He "continuously fought with success against the Angelcyn and Britons, Picts and Scots." During this tim ...

Cerdic of Wessex

Cerdic was the first Anglo Saxon King of the Gewisse, also called the King of Wessex. He was the progenitor of the kings of Wessex and the Anglo-Saxon kings of England beginning with Athelstan.

Pope Clement II

Pope Clement II was the leader of the Catholic Church from 25 December 1046 until he died in 1047. He was born with the name Suidger von Morsleben in Hornburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. His parents were Count Konrad of Morsleben and Hornburg and his ...


Cleon was an Athenian politician and general known for his support of the Peloponnesian War. The historian Thucydides writes that Cleon was a demagogue and that he once ordered the Athenians to massacre an entire city for rebelling against Athens ...

Coenwulf of Mercia

Coenwulf was a Mercian nobleman and the King of Mercia from December 796 until his death. He claimed to be a descendant of a Cenwalh, a brother of Penda and Eowa. The sudden death of King Ecgfrith of Mercia was suspicious and certainly benefited ...

Cuthred of Wessex

Cuthred was a West Saxon nobleman and atheling. He was King of Wessex from 740 to 756. Cuthred succeeded in restoring much of the prestige of Wessex.

Cwichelm of Wessex

Cwichelm was the King of the Gewisse, although more commonly called the King of Wessex. He reigned from 626 until his death. He was a pagan king who became a Christian shortly before his death.

Cynewulf of Wessex

Cynewulf was a member of the West Saxon witan. He led that council in expelling Sigeberht. Cynewulf was elected by the witan to rule Wessex in place of Sigeberht. He attested a charter at the court of King Æthelbald of Mercia. The charter was for ...

Cynric of Wessex

Cynric, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was the son of Cerdic. Most of what is known about Cynric and his father Cerdic comes from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. According to the chronicle, Cerdic and Cynric, both chiefs, arrived in 495. Cerd ...

Ecgfrith of Mercia

Ecgfrith was the King of Mercia from July to December 796. He was the son of Offa, the King of Mercia, and Cynethryth. In 787 he was crowned King of Mercia while his father still ruled. This is the first known consecration of an English king. No ...

Eustace I, Count of Boulogne

He was the oldest son of Count Baldwin II of Boulogne and Adelina of Holland. Eustace became count in 1042. Eustace I was also the count of Lens. During the minority of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, Eustaces grandfather, Arnulf III, Count of Bou ...

Patrick H. Grace

Patrick Henry Grace was a United States Navy sailor. He received the Medal of Honor for actions during the Korean Expedition of 1871. He was a native of Ireland but moved to the United States. His original name was Henry Patrick Grace but he chan ...

Ida of Bernicia

Ida is the first known king of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. He was called Ida the Flame-bearer by Welsh poets. Ida ruled from around 547 until his death. He is considered the founder of a line of Anglian kings who later ruled the powerful kin ...

Ine of Wessex

Ine was a West Saxon nobleman who was King of Wessex from 688 to 726. He established Wessex as a true kingdom by introducing a code of laws. He strengthened the position of the Church in Wessex. His long reign was the most successful of any West ...


Kālidās, was the author of Meghadoot, Shākuntal, and other works in Sanskrit. He has a similar place in Sanskrit as a poet and a dramatist, as Shakespeare in English. Kālidāss plays and poetry are based on Hindu mythology and philosophy.

Ludeca of Mercia

Ludeca was a Mercian nobleman and ealdorman. At the death of Beornwulf in 826 he became the King of Mercia. He ruled what was left of Mercia after Beornwulfs defeat by Egbert of Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun. He ruled Mercia until his own deat ...

Offa of Mercia

Offa was the King of Mercia from 757 until his death in July 796. Many historians regard Offa as the most powerful Anglo-Saxon king before Alfred the Great. Offa died in 796 and was succeeded by his son, Ecgfrith, who reigned for less than five m ...

Penda of Mercia

Penda was a 7th century King of Mercia. He was a noble of the royal house of Mercia and a pagan his entire life. Penda was the central figure in English history from 632 until his death. Penda treated every Northumbrian king as his enemy, especia ...

Pope Alexander I

Alexander I served as the fifth Pope of the Catholic Church, the official title is the Bishop of Rome. His years of service can only be approximated to be ca. 109-116 C.E. Early sixth-century writings attribute Alexander with inserting the words ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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