★ Folk music - oral tradition ..

Mangka Mayanglambam

Mangka Mayanglambam is an Indian Manipuri folk, classical and contemporary song performer and a Pena player. She is best known for the Hada Samadon Ayangba, the opening theme song for the 8th Manipur International Polo Tournament in Imphal. Besides, she is one of a few artists who is preserving the rich granary of Meitei folk music, especially the genres of the Moirang Sai, among the present generation.

Pena (musical instrument)

A Pena is a mono string musical instrument falling in the lute category. It is a traditional music instrument of Manipur and is usually used by the folk singers of Meitei ethnicity, while performing folk music. It is commonly seen in performance during the Lai Haraoba festival also. Pena performance is a dying art form in Manipur as there are only 145 active artists reported in the state. Several organizations including the Laihui Ensemble, are trying their best to preserve the endangered form of traditional art from extinction.

                                     

★ Folk music

Folk music is music that is played or sung by ordinary people. It is traditional music that people learn by listening to other people playing it and then copying them. We say that the tradition is" orally transmitted” or" handed down orally”, meaning that the music is not written down but taught by speaking. Every country has its own traditional music. Folk song is part of folk music. A folksinger is a person who sings folk songs.

In the 1960s a new type of music was started by Bob Dylan who mixed traditional folk song with rock and roll. This music is sometimes called" folk rock”.

Folk music is music for everybody to play and listen to. In this way it is different from classical music which is mainly developed by professional musicians for a smaller group of people. Folk music is part of a popular culture, although the term" popular music” or" pop music” today refers to a kind of music which people can hear through television, radio and other means of recording.

In many parts of the world nearly all music is folk music. The term" folk music” is usually used for European and American music which is part of an oral tradition. Folk music as an oral tradition, is much less important than before, in part because of new technology. Folk tunes are now often written down, and they have influenced other kinds of music, so that the differences between various types of music are harder to see.

                                     

1. The traditional origins

In older times folk music was part of" communal recreation”. This means that small communities such as villages or families would relax by playing and singing music together. People would often make up a new song or new piece of music, or make changes to music that they already knew. In this way music was always changing. People would get musical ideas from other groups nearby. This is why folk music from neighbouring countries often sound similar.

Ballads were a popular kind of folk music. These were folk songs which told a story they were" narrative”. Sometimes they had a refrain after each verse so that everybody could join in. Ballads told stories of love, myths or folklore. This is how stories were handed down from one generation to another.

Instrumental folk music was used for dancing. Some of the instruments may have been very simple, such as a pair of sticks, rattle or a simple drum. Other instruments may include fiddle the folk word for" violin”, bagpipes, harp, zither, or various wind instruments, depending on the time of history and the country.

Some singing was polyphonic, i.e. there were two or more parts voices. Very often two voices would sing in parallel going up and down together. In countries such as Russia persons sings in three or four parts, e.g. in the tradition of" podgolosnaya”" underneath the voice”. In countries such as Britain this polyphonic tradition did not exist. Folk songs there were sung by one singer, unaccompanied.

Folk music used different scales. These are called modes. The Ionian mode like our major scale was the most common in Western Europe. In some parts of Eastern Europe modes with several semitones were used, but for the most part, half steps were avoided. This results is the tunes being described as tetratonic four notes per octave or pentatonic five notes per octave.

Folk music also includes simple children’s songs and lullabies.

Folk music was sung by people as they worked. In the early days of European immigration in America the pioneers sang as they travelled, cowboys sang as they worked, slaves sang in the cottonfields.

                                     

2. Influence on classical music

In the 18th century folk music started to have an influence on classical music or" art music”. People from the higher classes started to be interested in folk music because they were conscious of being part of a tradition. Composers such as Mozart and Schubert wrote folk dances for orchestras or small groups of instruments.

Folk music was used by many composers in the Romantic period. Gustav Mahler used folk song in a lot of his music. In the early twentieth century some composers travelled around collecting folk music which was being played or sung by people in the country. They often used some of these ideas in their music. Bartok did this in Hungary as well as in Bulgaria and in the United States, and people such as Cecil Sharp and the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams collected folk music in England. In the United States the influence of jazz on classical music is all part of the story of folk music.

                                     
  • Folk rock music is a mixture of folk music with modern rock music Folk rock began in the mid 1960s with performers like the Byrds. Folk singer Bob Dylan
  • In music: folk music or folksong, music by and of the common people. folk dance, a 19th century form of dance folk - punk, a genre of music that combines
  • Music of Mexico has a lot of different forms of music genres that are performed by Mexican musicians. Folk musicbutthead is the bum and he iss a type of
  • Folk punk also known as rogue folk is a combination of folk music and punk rock. It became popular in the early 1980s by The Pogues in Britain, and
  • Folk metal is a type of heavy metal music that started in Europe in the 1990s. This music is a mixture of heavy metal and traditional folk music Folk
  • them to create a new type of music called folk rock or acid rock. Folk rock and acid rock mixed folk music blues and rock and roll for example The Byrds
  • music which sounds very Czech. Pyotr Tchaikovsky 1840 - 1893 wrote music with Russian folk songs in them. Gustav Mahler 1860 - 1911 used German folk songs
  • western history, Australia was made of many British colonies. Australian folk music and bush ballads such as Waltzing Matilda were influenced by Anglo - Celtic
  • Georgian Folk Dances Bhangra a Punjabi harvest dance and music style that has become popular worldwide. Ghoomar a traditional Bhil tribe women s folk dance
  • country music Rock music is related to a number of other genres such as blues and folk It has influences from jazz, classical and other music genres
  • popular for time or just to be a commercial success. It is different from folk music which is generally made up by ordinary members of society and learned
  • they march in parades or at American football matches. A folk band uses traditional styles of music from around the world. It can include a guitar, violin


                                     
  • Psychedelic music is a term referring to different music styles and genres, such as psychedelic rock, psychedelic folk psychedelic pop, psychedelic soul
  • Sugar Hill Records is a folk music record label. Some of the artists who have released albums with the label are Nickel Creek, Allison Moorer, Sam Bush
  • German settlers in the 1800s. Tejano music is a mix - music - genre of German folk Ranchera, Mariachi, and Conjunto music The genre became popular during the
  • of music market products collected from traditional music or folk music which were found in different parts of the world. In sampled world music collections
  • music to which they control the rights. BMI has historically been more open to composers of rock and roll, jazz, folk music blues, and country music
  • We often talk about classical music meaning European music which is not pop music or jazz or folk music It is music which has been written by composers
  • rock music developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Rock music combines many kinds of music from the United States, such as country music folk music gospel
  • In music a drone is a note which sounds all the time while a piece of music is played. Some folk instruments always make a drone when they are played:
  • songs. Sometimes, one person writes the music and one writes the words the lyrics Some songs such as folk songs were composed many years ago and no
  • Celtic music is the name for a collection of types of music that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic people of Western Europe.
  • called classical music In this regard, it is frequently used as a contrasting term to popular music and traditional or folk music Mount, Andre 2010
                                     
  • Irish music is the music of Ireland. Ireland shares folk music traditions with other Celtic nations such as Scotland, but many of its more modern artists
  • Travis in the 1980s raises new interest. Country music has its roots and beginnings in folk music The old cowboy and pioneer songs of the American frontier
  • the piece. Transcriptions are common for music such as jazz which usually consists of improvisation and folk which traditionally is taught from one
  • mixed with traditional Celtic music Celtic punk bands often play covers of traditional Irish, Welsh or Scottish folk and political songs. They will
  • performances. The music that is heard comes in a wide variety, including world music hip hop, jazz, americana, bluegrass, country music folk gospel, reggae
  • Turbofolk or Pop - folk is a style of music from the Balkans that was invented in the early 1990s. It mostly comes from Greece, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • dance are in late 18th century Germany, probably from a folk dance called the Lander. Today the music is danced in two forms, the Viennese waltz and the English

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